The Pan Theory is an alternative to the Big Bang Theory. It is also a set of theories that propose explanations for the origin for all the fundamental forces of physics as well as an alternative theory of Gravity and a new theory of Relativity.

You may never read another modern-age theory formulated in a similar manner that starts from scratch with no pre-existing laws of physics. This is because these related theories assert that the laws of physics, as well as energy, time, and space all can be defined and explained by the relative motion and interactions of matter.

I hope that you enjoy your visit to this site which contains all of the theories which were collectively called “Revolutionary new theories of the universe” (last copyrighted book title); the present book title is “a General Unified Model of Cosmology: featuring a Single-Force field-theory; The Pan Theory of Relativity, and alternative theories concerning the mechanics of both gravity of the quantum world.” Sincerely, Forrest Noble, the author of this book and the theories herein.

What is the “Pan Theory”?

The Pan Theory: that one most elementary particle started the entire universe. By slow division it became strings or clusters of the same identical particle. As these elementary particles decrease in size, they increase in number– from the beginning to the present time. Their combined forms, size, density, intrinsic and relative motion, position, and interactions are the sole constituents that make up all forms and states of matter, energy, “fundamental forces”, space, time — the entire universe.

What The Pan Theory above and its Implications within this text theoretically propose to provide answers for or explain:

The galactic red-shift: is not an expansion of space or a Doppler-shift

How the universe started, its regeneration and future

A “Single-Force-Field Theory”—fundamental forces as a state or condition

All forces of physics explained by mechanical principles

One fundamental force yielding unification

Answers to many of the related “well-known” observed anomalies/ quandaries

How galaxies originate, function and evolve

Black holes at the center of galaxies; their all-important creation function and make-up

“Dark Matter”, its primary constituents; where it comes from.

”unknown” mechanisms which mold the universe

Formulas to rectify many astronomical observations and “misconceptions”

”unknown” processes of stellar/ planetary formation and aging

“unknown” condition of relativity concerning matter, space and time. the known but unanswered questions of cosmology

“unknown” mechanisms of atomic and molecular cohesion

“unknown” states of matter

“unknown” relationship between particles and waves

“unknown” mechanisms which cause gravity

“unknown” mechanisms which cause magnetism

PREFACE

A complete theory of any subject must be able to generally explain all of the observed phenomena concerning that subject. Even with observational support, observational anomalies must still be explained. Even when using the best equipment and methods, interpretations are often debatable– along with occasional errors in validity, measurement, significance, etc; but only through this ability to competently explain prior observation and to predict new observations or phenomena can a theory gain or lose its credibility and thereby its advocates.

Arguably the fundamental theories in Cosmology and Physics too often lack in explanatory or predictive capability as well as a logical foundation. Thus the development of new theories was undertaken with an emphasis on their ability to be readily understood as well as provide logical explanations and better predictive capabilities. The result was two Sets of theories with the Pan Theory as their premise, one on Astronomy/Cosmology and the other on Theoretical Physics.
There are several guidelines which I’ve tried to use in this text:

To describe the logic and foundation for each theory.

To use the principle of Occam’s Razor – the simplicity principle in logic which states that the least complicated explanation (answer) is probably the best explanation (of course with no guarantees that any “simple, plausible” theory is valid).

To provide a reasonable perspective to analyze and consider the particles and
mechanisms according to the Pan theory that comprise and control the universe.
In the sciences of astronomy and physics, observational information has multiplied more than ten-fold in the past thirty years over all that was previously known. Theories have been developed with the purpose of unifying the fundamental forces of physics, i.e.: the ‘strong atomic force’, the ‘weak atomic force’ and the electromagnetic force. Some theories also include the gravitational force. These theories collectively are called Grand Unified Theories or G.U.T.’s.

Grand Unified Theories or G.U.T.’s., (continued)

These theories have been postulated to explain the beginnings of the universe as a whole. Some of them try to additionally unify all of these forces; these have been collectively dubbed Theories of Everything (reportedly by Time Magazine in ‘84’). Most of these theories have been developed from a set of equations which are the bases for the theories which attempt to unify Gravity, Quantum Mechanics, The Strong Force, the Weak Force, and the Electro-Magnetic force. The foundation premise/ assumption for all of these known theories is the Big-Bang Theory (BB), most are collectively called string theories (ST). The Pan Theory (PT) also could be called a T.O.E. or possibly a ST because it also proposes a solution to the same unifications– but unlike other ST it has numerous predictions.

The word “Pan” in the Pan Theory could be whimsically considered a cooking vessel (pan/ pot) which metaphorically prepares food for the universe to grow. The root-word “pan” is from the Greek meaning all or everything (like Pan American airlines). In this case a “Pan” in The Pan Theory means both “everything” and the “only thing”. This is the source of the name Pan Theory.

Most of the theories within this text are called “Ipan” Theories (IP) except for the brief Pan Theory itself (one paragraph) and three other “primary” theories: The Pan Theory of Relativity, The No Priori Force Theory, and The Pan-Gravity Theory. The “I” in Ipan refers to the first letter of the adjectives which might describe the theory’s relationship to the Pan Theory. These Ipan theories are a group/ set of Inter-related theories/ hypotheses, that are mutually re-enforcing. They could be described/ considered as being any one or a combination of the following related Pan Theory adjectives: Included within, Implied by, Inferred by, Interdependent part of, an Incremental-compliment to, or an Independent augmentation to The Pan Theory. The definition of an Ipan theory is simply: any theory proposed by anybody which uses the Pan Theory as a premise.

The Pan Theory and the associated Pan Theory of Relativity are alternatives to many of today’s fundamental theories and concepts in Cosmology and Physics. The Ipan theories contained herein, on the other hand can be considered the currently-favored Ipan theories, but not the only possible explanations that could be consistent with the Pan Theory above. The Ipan theories will necessarily change and add refinement with new observations and analyses, but the Pan Theory cannot change its primary Propositions and still remain the same theory.

Grand Unified Theories or G.U.T.’s. (continued)

Other theories have been postulated to explain the beginning operations of the universe as a whole. Some of them try to additionally unify all of these forces; these have been collectively dubbed Theories of Everything (reportedly by Time Magazine in ‘84’). Most of these theories have been developed from a set of equations which are the bases for the theories which attempt to unify Gravity, Quantum Mechanics, the Strong Force, the Weak Force, and the Electro-Magnetic force. The foundation premise/ assumption for all of these known theories is the Big-Bang Theory (BB), most are collectively called string theories (ST). The Pan Theory (PT) also could be called a T.O.E. or possibly a ST because it also proposes a solution to the same unifications– but unlike other ST it has numerous predictions.

The word “Pan” in the Pan Theory could be whimsically considered a cooking vessel (pan/ pot/ wok) which metaphorically prepares food for the universe to grow. The root-word “pan” is from the Greek meaning all or everything (like Pan-American Airlines). In this case a “Pan” in the Pan Theory means both “everything” and the “only thing.” This is the source of the name Pan Theory.

Most of the theories within this text are called “Ipan” Theories (IP) except for the brief Pan Theory itself (one paragraph) and three other “primary” theories: The Pan Theory of Relativity, The No Priori Force Theory, and The Pan-Gravity Theory. The “I” in Ipan refers to the first letter of the adjectives which might describe the theory’s relationship to the Pan Theory. These Ipan theories are a group/ set of Inter-related theories/ hypotheses, that are mutually re-enforcing.

They could be described/ considered as being any one or a combination of the following related Pan Theory adjectives: Included within, Implied by, Inferred by, Interdependent part of, an Incremental-compliment to, or an Independent augmentation to The Pan Theory. The definition of an Ipan theory is simply: any theory proposed by anybody which uses the Pan Theory as a premise.

The Pan Theory and the associated Pan Theory of Relativity are a direct challenge to many of today’s fundamental theories and concepts in Cosmology and Physics. The Ipan theories contained herein, on the other hand can be considered the currently-favored Ipan theories, but not the only possible explanations that could be consistent with the Pan Theory. The Ipan theories will necessarily change and add refinement with new observations and analyses, but the Pan Theory cannot change its primary Propositions and still remain the same theory.

Generally whenever Pan or Ipan theory is expressed throughout this text this abbreviation has been used: “APT” (According to the Pan and related Ipan theories). I’ve been criticized by editors for including this too often in the text, but when I’ve left it out some editorial readers have complained that it is not clear if a theory is conventional or a Ipan Theory (IP). For this version I’ve left in the APT’s so hopefully there will be no related misunderstandings. If there is any question however as to whether a theory you are reading is Ipan theory or another theory (because I may have inadvertently edited it out) refer to a textbook/ Google etc. for conventional or alternative theories. Although others have provided editorial information and I have made many changes for the purpose of clarity and to update once in awhile, this text may still have non-theory errors, because of, rather than in spite of continual editing.

Even though the PT might be best classified as a TOE, the theory’s concepts are used to derive its equations rather than visa versa. The Pan / Ipan theories, within its whole or its parts, might be categorized in all these categories: as a Singularity theory, a String theory, a Grand Unified Theory, a “No-Force- Fields Theory”, a theory of Relativity, or a theory of the “ATOMOS,” a most fundamental particle first proposed by Leucippus, and later theorized by Democritus of ancient Greece.

Starting definitions used in this text

Assumptions are assertions made without evidence to support them or reasons for their existence. Many assumptions may be made at the beginning of a hypothesis or theory to facilitate explanation. Later assumptions may be incorporated into the hypothesis or theory by providing evidence to support them.

A Concept is an idea, assertion, perspective or way of looking at something by “putting an idea into words”. Concepts are ideas which may or may not be supported be observation. The foundation ideas herein, that are the basis for all propositions, hypotheses and theories are expressed first using verbal-logic. Mathematics is added as needed.

Cosmology, the study of the Universe (or Universes) as a whole, includes every existing or proposed state of reality usually involving astronomical expanses of matter, time, space, and radiation.

Deductive Reasoning: a type of reasoning resulting from observations involving inferences from general principles or laws; a valid system of logic that sometimes fails as to its conclusions.

Ether or Aether: A theoretical background Omni-present field material which is one of the major constituents of the theoretical entity called “dark matter”. These particles combined with their energy are now called/ are the same as the zero-point fluctuations/ field. This dark matter/ field particles are much smaller than atomic particles and permeate all Space and Matter and are the substance which makes up waves of E.M radiation (light), as well as the waves produced by matter particles.

Happen: come into being or existence, become a reality.

A Hypothesis could become a Major or Minor theory but further support data (or peer-review acceptance) may be needed to reach a recognized “theory” status.

Inductive Reasoning: a type of reasoning which draws from a number of instances or observational information to come to a general conclusion; not necessarily valid logic — one of the two types of reasoning needed for all theories, the other being deductive reasoning which also can be fallible.

Kinetic Motion (of heat): A type of internal vibrating atomic/ molecular motion that matter experiences as it is being compressed or heated. Generally the more a gas, liquid, or solid is compressed or heated the faster and more frequently the molecules within it will bounce around (Brownian Motion). This is the Kinetic theory for the cause of heat.

Pan (as in the Pan Theory of Relativity) is the name given to the most fundamental particle in this Theory, which accordingly is the building block of all matter. Pan in Greek means everything. In this theory it also means the only thing. In this text it also has been called a background-field particle, or the most fundamental particle –as in the Ancient Greek philosophical school lead by Democritus (which he called the atomos, Greek: a = not & tom = cut; cannot be divided, the source of the word atom).

Premise is a statement set forth beforehand as an explanation where no evidence is initially presented to support it.

A Priori Forces, laws, and – are foundation/ “fundamental laws or forces” assumed to be truth within a logical argument, when logical support or argument cannot or will not be provided within a given context.

A Proposition or Postulate is a concept which is needed to add explanation to a theory. It cannot be easily disproved, but an alternative proposition probably could also provide similar support for the hypothesis or theory.

Physics is the study of properties and mechanics involving matter and energy and phenomena associated with them such as magnetism, gravity, atomic forces, electro-magnetic radiation, optics, acoustics, etc.

Quantum Theory is a theory of matter and radiation of the atomic particle scale/ realm, differing from classical mechanics in primarily two distinct ways: the principles of indeterminism and discreteness.

Red-Shift — the shifting of galactic EM (electro-magnetic) radiation to a redder/ longer-wave length of the EM spectrum. The extent of this shift, according to Doppler theory, increases in proportion to a galaxy’s distance from the observer. This change in appearance has been called the Doppler Effect/ shift.

A Theory/ theory is defined here as a type of Concept, whether verbal and/ or mathematical, concerning organization, function, genesis, behavior, cause and effect sequences, which involves explanations/ equations supported by evidence and could be further substantiated by generally defined testing or future observation. Properly formulated theories must also conceive of a number of reasonable ways how they might be disproved, otherwise they would be considered a hypothesis.

The term Theory with a capital ‘T’ refers to major Theories discussed herein such as: The Pan Theory of Relativity, The Pan Theory of Gravity, The Big Bang Theory, etc.

The term theory with a small ‘t” refers to secondary theories which support major Theories, like the theory of Inflation or String theories.

Time is defined as a change in form or relative position of that which exists.

The Universe, the combination of everything, all entities that have a state of reality—everything that is real and not imaginary. By this definition nothing can exist outside of it—it is all inclusive. It would include any spiritual entities, other universes or dimensions.

The following is a list of primary concepts that are used in the Theoretical Cosmology and Physics Sections. These concepts are listed now so that a reader might consider referring back to them to aid their reading/ analyses. You will find that some theory has been referenced in the Concept Section just as Concepts have been referenced in the Theory Sections– to better explain the conceptual intent of theoretical text (Concept summary below). The details of these Concepts are described following the Predictions Section.

Listing of the Concepts
(a detailed presentation of these Concepts is made in Section 3)

All else being equal, “The simplest explanation for some phenomenon is more likely to be accurate than more complicated explanations.” This 14th century concept was proposed at the beginning of the age of “enlightenment” or free-thinking in Europe. It is called the Principle of Occam’s Razor.

Something does not come from nothing. This is a very old concept and adage

Mass/ energy can neither be created nor destroyed”. Everything can be considered relative. This principle requires a relative comparison for any statement concerning realities of the natural world. This concept was originally conceived by Heinrich Mach. A similar version reached greater fame through Albert Einstein.

Either the universe is expanding, atoms are getting smaller, or both perspectives could be considered valid. Using the concept of relativity (concept #3) to consider the red-shifting of galactic light, one could validly conclude that either or both of these perspectives would be valid.

The beginning of the universe would have been much simpler and therefore easier to explain if atoms were becoming smaller in size and greater in number as time progresses. Projecting backwards in time to a beginning could result in a simple fundamental particle starting the entire universe.

There is a background field of very small sub-atomic sized particles. An atmosphere of particles having a duel source of potential energy, one intrinsic, and the other derived from relative motion. This field permeates the entire universe with varying densities. The motion of Galaxies, quantum particles, waves of light, as well as gravity mechanics can all be explained in terms of this “background field”.

The inside of a Black Hole consists of a very dense form of matter– more dense than a theoretical Neutron Star. This concept is known to many astronomers but currently is supported only as one of the possibilities.

Only one particle — (herein called The God Particle or a Pan) as a solitary entity, started the entire universe. This same fundamental particle is the building block of all matter and of “background-field” particles. This particle produces strings of itself which may be altered by interaction into non-linear string configurations which become the most basic atomic particles, protons and electrons.

From the beginning of time until now there has always been just one fundamental particle in the entire universe which is the building block for all others. All atomic matter except for hydrogen is created within stars. This process is called Nucleo-Synthesis.

The particles which form common hydrogen, protons and electrons are created from stings of field material in the “halo area” surrounding young Galactic Black Holes.

A Galaxy of stars forms from a vast quantity of protons and electrons (discussed in Concept #10) most of which were created by the forces surrounding “young” Galactic Black Holes which eject much of this new matter outwardly in polar jets. Consequently it could be said that galaxies form from the inside out for the bulk of matter which will form the stars of that galaxy.

The time to create the observable universe by the accretion method from a single elementary particle has been calculated to be trillions of years rather than billions of years.

Waves of light and other E.M radiation consist of two distinct and real facets of light moving together.

One constituent is small “bundles” of field particles which have been called quanta or photons, the other is a wave (something like a wave in water) of field particles.

The Ether might be found in a similar way Michelson and Morley’s experiment proposed to find it, except by using modern more accurate electronic equipment, by measuring the speed of light relative to the vertical acceleration of relatively slow-moving field material into the earth. One constituent is small “bundles” of field particles which have been called quanta or photons, the other is a wave (something like a wave in water) of field particles.

The Ether might be found in a similar way Michelson and Morley’s experiment proposed to find it, except by using modern more accurate electronic equipment, by measuring the speed of light relative to the vertical acceleration of relatively slow-moving field material into the earth.

The gravitational effect begins with field material accelerating into all matter as well as Black Holes. All matter “flattens” the kinetic field pressure surrounding it. This causes reduced field pressure in the direction of matter which accelerates matter toward other matter.

There is no such thing as pure energy or fundamental forces in the absence of matter or particle-fields. All Forces and energy are solely characteristics and/ or manifestations of matter and/ or field particles.

The observable universe would look generally the same to any observer at any time or place. (in this case not part of a steady-state theory)

The Red-Shift of Galactic light which we observe from all but the closest galaxies can best be explained by a theory of relativity.

“Force-Fields” and “Pure Energy” are solely the manifestations of a background particle field of “fundamental particles”. The size and motion of these particles, as well as all matter, decreases as time progresses. This can be called the relativity of size and motion (including the speed of light) to time. This concept is one of the primary foundations of the Pan Theory of Relativity.

All matter has the “dimension” of potential energy which perpetuates time. Time is solely an interval of change.

Space can be defined solely as an extension of matter and the distances encompassed by it.

“Hemispheric Spin”, “Reciprocal uniform Torque” – is a single “dimension” of matter that causes atoms and fundamental particles to spin. It is the same energy source that multiplies fundamental particles resulting in all the forms of matter and energy in the universe.

Atomic particles as well as other innately spinning particles consist of a single loop of a fundamental particle string. These spinning loops appear to be solid but, like atoms, they mostly contain space.

In both man-made devices and nature-made material, Perpetual-Motion machines are theoretical misconceptions.

The diminution of matter (discussed in the previous concept as well as Concept #5) is a process that enables the use of Mathematical Limits to consider possibilities of a brighter future for the Universe.

Time and Space as well as everything else within the universe is finite!

All interactions in the Quantum world have a mechanical explanation as well as all interactions and events in the entire universe.

Every question that can be asked concerning the beginnings of the universe, a condition, event, or relative motion during any time frame, has a logical explanation which can be linguistically described in a simple valid way.

Time is defined as a change in form or relative position of that which exits; A pan, accordingly, could not have just come into existence or just happened. The word happen in the definitions text says “Happen: come into being or existence, become a reality.” It can precisely be stated: that for all finite time, Pan have always existed. Accordingly there never was a time before the first Pan. Yet time and Pan have existed only for a finite period.

The Concepts above can be categorized in the following way: Concepts # 1 & 9 are generally undisputed in modern science. Concept # 2 is a principal of logic few would argue against given the included definitions. Concept # 3 is widely known and generally accepted. Since the time of Einstein most scientists accept this concept but believe there are “constants” such as the speed of light which are exceptions. Concepts # 6, 13, 14 & 16 support a field theory similar to others proposed in the last 150 years– including a few modern ones. Concepts #18 &19 are the concepts which describe the Pan Theory of Relativity. These concepts also are supported by the first six concepts as well as Concepts # 8 & 12.

Concepts # 13, 15, 20, 21, 26 & 27 are major concepts of theories which are concerned with the underpinnings of reality. Concepts # 7, 10, & 11 also support original theories concerning Black Holes. These theories purpose is to explain fundamental creation alternatively credited to a Big Bang. Concepts # 22, 24 & 25 are concepts concerning the physical/ mechanical innate potential energy, “dimension” of all matter, and how it theoretically relates to the past and future of the universe. Concepts #11, 15 & 17 as well as other concepts herein are intended to make observable predictions. Together all of these concepts are intended to be the underpinnings of the logic of this text, providing the guidelines to answer the major questions concerning Cosmology, Physics and reality in general. Theory is presented which proposes relatively simple answers to the general questions: How did reality begin in the first place and how is it constructed? It is not necessary to believe or agree with these concepts, only to understand this seemingly simpler perspective of reality. Once alternative theories are known one can follow both observations and predictions with greater insight into theoretical possibilities — which is a major designed objective of this text.

Below is a brief summary/ explanation of the entire Pan Theory and The Pan Theory of Relativity. It is described here by combining two independent theories. The First asserts that matter decreases in size and increases in numbers as time passes, which is a theory of Relativity. Matter as well as space, and the speed of light are relative to the time frame of observation. The Second theory asserts that all “fundamental forces” can be explained in terms of pushing or engagement.::: That gravity and electromagnetism are the result of field material pushing on matter. The Strong Force and the Weak Force are both the result of mechanical connections/ engagements within atomic nuclei.

The name Pan Theory generally refers to all the combined related theories. All describe different aspects of reality which are concerned with Cosmogony, Cosmology, and Physics. The Pan Theory of Relativity is concerned with the relative description of Space, and Matter and how their measurement and condition is relative to Time; and that both Space and Time are defined by Matter. Their inter-relationships are verbally and mathematically described/ explained.

The following quotes and commentary are not a part of the book; just some wisdom in quotes and criticisms added for the online version only. (selected excerpts taken out of context from other sources) (Concerning the Big Bang Theory) There are too many things which don’t sound right:

The entire universe created in an instant by magic (what you might call an un-provable and probably an unknowable event?). The difficult-to-fathom idea and seemingly fanciful new mathematical hypothesis of physics, with no evidentiary basis: that all the matter and energy in the universe could escape an incredible gravity well at millions of times the speed of light (Inflation Theory.) The illogical idea that space itself is expanding. The microwave background radiation somehow hanging around from the big bang event instead of completely dissipating after supposedly 13.7B years. If it looks like a duck and sounds like a duck and smells like a duck… I think it smells like a very dead one.

You may have noticed that the Big Bang is referred to as a hypothesis, not a theory. This is because ‘a theory is a statement or proposition that has been generally proved by logical reasoning from given facts and justifiable assumptions and it provides a real means by which it can be disproved’. That’s like the theory of evolution, which is clearly supported by facts which we can see in action and can be generally “proved” or “disproved” logically in any number of ways. In contrast a hypothesis is merely ‘a supposition put forward in explanation of observed facts’. Until we can find more convincing evidence to support that the creation of everything came from it, when reasonable methods are determined which could generally disprove the theory, and when contradictory observations cease, the Big Bang must remain a hypothesis.”

(The two definitions above came from the Penguin Dictionary of Science, by E.B. Ubarov and Alan Isaacs, 7th Edition.) (commentary source unknown)

Like all sciences, astronomy advances most rapidly when confronted with exceptions to its theories…. -from Modern Astrophysics (Bradley Carroll & Dale Ostlie)

Science is a way of trying, not fooling yourself. The first principle is that you must not fool yourself, and you are the easiest person to fool. -Richard P. Feynman (Physics Nobel Laureate)

Note to the Reader

Some prior knowledge of astronomy and physics can aid a reader in understanding some of the ideas presented herein but the primary requisite for a reader is simply a strong curiosity. Some of the following theories may seem difficult and impracticable to some readers, and to others they may seem to be simplistic, fanciful or too speculative. In addition, many theories herein generally deviate from present day perspectives and therefore most peoples thinking. A person’s education and intellectual environment most often causes a bias of perception and a fear of ridicule which increases with age, for those who might have otherwise continued to examine, develop or support new and better concepts/ theories. This could likely be the reason why young people (early 20’s) often make some of the greatest discoveries and contributions in science. Their insight is equal to that of an older generation but their biases toward established theories would be, accordingly, less entrenched. They have much to gain and little to lose (reputation, ego, carrier, etc.) by challenging old ideas and by sometimes promoting radically different concepts and theories which may lead to scientific breakthroughs.

This is a theory built completely from the ground up. No laws of physics are assumed or needed. It may be perceived as primarily a two faceted theory, with no assumptions. You probably never will read another modern-age theory formulated like this; one that starts from scratch. Why? If the Pan Theory of Relativity, The Single-Force Theory, or “The Single Elementary Particle Theory” (SEP theory), herein, are ever disproved, much of the theory would seemingly “fizzle” and no more “from-the-ground-up” attempts would be needed because multiple “a priori forces” would accordingly then be a confirmed reality. On the other hand if the primary alternative theories, underlined above, became the dominant theories, then the wheel would not need to be reinvented. There seemingly would be no further all- inclusive attempts made to build new theories from-the-ground-up, only continuously proposed improvements to this pre-existing model.

The intent of this text is “highly ambitious”. Its goal is that regardless of ones education, background, knowledge or beliefs concerning Cosmology and Physics, that a reader with moderate effort might gain better insights into reality by virtue of this logic and possibilities discussed in these Concepts. Some of these ideas are well-accepted principles in the field of verbal logic. Some are based upon seemingly simple perspectives concerning the essence of Time, Space, Energy, Matter, Forces, and the sources and inter-relationships of these and other facets of reality.

Other Concepts will discuss the beginning of the universe, the age of the universe, the future of the universe, the creation of all matter and energy, the causes of gravity and other fundamental forces of Physics. All of these concepts in the end are put together to support a group of theories which are included in, or supported by, the Pan Theory of Relativity.

The Cosmology theory that you are about to read is necessarily in a verbal format like the Theory of Evolution, and unlike present day Big Bang Cosmological models which are primarily mathematical. This is because the Pan Theory asserts herein that General Relativity (Einstein’s theory of gravity from which the Big Bang Theory is founded upon) would accordingly not be applicable to the universe as a whole because gravity forces between most stars and galaxies would accordingly be based upon non-linear, three dimensional gravity currents of dark matter that would have unpredictable facets to them. The theoretical physics discussed is also primarily verbal with some proposed new mathematical formulations including those for gravity.

Problems with many currently accepted theories including the Big-Bang Model of the universe are also briefly discussed. To gain a better understanding of these problems, the books “The Big Bang Never happened”, by Eric Lerner and “Bye Bye Big Bang” by William Mitchell, have extensive chapters devoted to these perceived problems. My hope is that regardless of your education or present beliefs, after reading and studying this and related reference texts, that you will have a better understanding of reality. You also might consider the possibility that a logical and most simple explanation for the basis of the whole of reality (matter, forces, atoms, energy, etc.), could be solely the physical manifestations of a single fundamental particle and nothing else, which is a major concept of the Pan Theory.