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Calculating distances by the 'P' Hubble formula

Caution: The 'P' Hubble distance calculator is based upon a non-mainstream distance formula which is intended to eventually replace the Hubble distance formula and its expanding universe cosmology the Big Bang. Its calculations were derived from an alternative cosmology called the Pan Theory which requires its own equation resulting in greater calculated distances than the Big Bang model using the Hubble distance formula based upon Special Relativity. This formula was refined and tested against hundreds of type 1a supernova observations showing them to be true standard candles, contrary to the need for dark energy to explain observations.

For this alternative cosmology the cause for the observed cosmic redshifts would be the diminution of matter rather than the expansion of space. It is a type of scale-changing theory and steady-state cosmology. The universe would not be expanding, instead matter would be very slowly getting smaller which would give the appearance of an expanding universe. At the same time new matter would be created from the decrement maintaining a generally constant universe density.

The 'P' Hubble distance formula, like the Hubble distance formula, proposes that the distance to a given galaxy is proportional to the redshift of its observed wavelengths. The redshift of the spectral lines is commonly expressed in terms of the "z" parameter, which is the measured change in length of the observed wavelengths.

The 'P' Hubble distance is given by the formula below (where Po is a constant = 1,958.3, and "z" is the redshift value). Click on the redshifted wavelength value after entering it, to calculate this page. :

21.2946 log10[0.5((z+1)0.5-1)+1](z+1)0.5 P0

If a spectral line which is normally nm long, is redshifted to nm,  then z = .   If no Hubble constant value is entered then a value of 68 will be displayed and used for the standard Hubble distance formula and calculations shown on the second page. Enter the desired Hubble constant value in the following input box for calculations displayed on the second page below  .  Note that since 2007 estimates of the Hubble constant value has continuously been going down.

The calculated square root of increased wavelength (z+1) is = . Time is the calculated number of doubling cycles based upon the Pan Theory, which is calculated to be = The Brightness Enhancement factor is calculated by this Pan Theory formula below which is based upon the diminition of matter going forward in time, resulting in larger matter in the past producing brighter stars than there distances would otherwise indicate based solely on the inverse square law of light.

Lu = Log10[[[((z+1).5t 1)(.5t) + 1](z + 1)] 2.512]

The calculation results is  lumens brightness based upon the redshifted wavelenght input when using the above formula and its premise that matter very slowly gets smaller as time progresses which explains the source of cosmic redshifts according to the Pan Theory.
x x x x x x
The 'P' Hubble distance =  Mpc = Mly

Mpc = megaparsecs
Mly = million light years


Pan Theory
Distance calculations

with a required

Brightness addendum factor



Comparing Hubble calculated distances and brightnesses with Pan Theory calculations of distances and brightnesses

     Calculate this page  after entering data above

The Hubble formula below, like the 'P' Hubble formula on the previous page, states that the distance to a redshifted cosmic entity is proportional to the measured increases in the redshifted wavelengths as observed from the divided spectra of its light. The red shifted increase in the wavelenths is given by a "z" value. The Hubble distance is calculated by the Hubble Formula, where 'z' is the redshift, 'c' is the speed of light, and 'H 0' is the Hubble constant.

[((x+1)2-1) / ((x+1)2+1)] c / H0

A spectral line which is normally measured to be nm long is redshifted to nm. The redshift z =   Wavelengths were input on the previous page. The Hubble constant entered above = .

The Hubble distance(km/s/Mpc) = Mpc Mly

The ratio of the Hubble formula calculated distance to the Pan Theory calculated distance =  Since the Pan Theory calculated distances based upon its own distance formula is always greater than the standard-model calculated distances, for this reason alone galaxies and cosmic entities would appear dimmer than they should if the Pan Theory distance formula were correct and if it were the only factor involved.

The Pan Theory is based upon matter in the past having been larger. From this perspective larger cosmic entities would appear brighter which can be seen by the Brightness Enhancement factor calculated on the first page.

A decreased bightness factor, as a result of increased Pan Theory distances, results in a dimmer luminosity of + lumens. The standard formula for this calculation is based upon the inverse square law of light, where the change in distance squared is taken to the power of 2.512, and then the log10 is taken of that. The combined total of the two factors, the first is of increased brightnesses due to larger atoms in the past, and the second factor decreases brightnesses due to increased distances. This overall change in brightness was the basis for the dark energy proposal concerning type 1a supernova. This combined factor is one of the most important calculated factors here since astronomers can determine what should be expected based upon standard model calculated distances and brightnesses ; values are positive unless designated negative.

The angular size of galaxies and other cosmic entities will appear to be smaller than they really are/were if the distance in fact is greater according to the Pan Theory and its distance equation. The angular size difference based upon increased distances would be inversely proportional to the change in distance. To a lesser extent angular sizes of cosmic entities can be influenced by larger atoms in the past. This additional factor would be directly proportional to the cube root of the observed wavelengths, but this factor not only accordingly influences the observed size of matter, but also the size of space it occupies. For this reason this factor is not needed in this or related calculations. The inverse of this factor is often used by astronomers to represent angular size, which for the input variables is to the minus 1 power.

Observed brightnesses and angular sizes of galaxies and other cosmic entities are the calculated predictions of the Pan Theory, which are believed to be confirmed by an extensive study of type 1a supernova which can been seen in the related research paper, link below.

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/32603/19463

Explaining well-known theoretical and observational problems with the Big Bang model, while for the same reasons and observations support the Pan Theory, is explained in another research paper, link below.

http://www.aijcrnet.com/journals/Vol_4_No_9_September_2014/2.pdf

Comparison of Pan Theory calcualtions

to Hubble Distance and Brightness calculations

 
Astrophysics            Cosmology                 Theoretical Physics              Noble